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How to build a hybrid solar/wind energy harvester?

Filtering sensor data

The ADC is a much used peripheral in embedded systems. This is not different in our project. We extensively use it to read out – for example – voltage and amperage data. Many people are still unaware of the fact that it is still just sampling: One gets a digital value which is the result […]


STM32F100: why and how to use the internal reference voltage for ADC?

One of our main development boards is the  STM32VLDISCOVERY. Its st-link is an in-circuit debugger and programmer, and makes development for prototyping fast and easy. The board has an ‘interesting’ property though: its reference voltage is labeled 3.3V while it is actually… only 3V. Check out the picture for proof!   After reviewing the board schematics we found […]


ADC driver for the energy harvester

Introduction One of the goals of iteration 1 of the energy harvester project is to extend our software platform with drivers for measuring (gpio in, adc), controlling (gpio out, pwm) and debugging (uart). In this article our focus is set on the ADC driver (we already introduced the Analog-to-Digital-Converter here). It is hard (not to say […]



In order to (attempt to) control things, we need to find out what is going on, we need to measure and quantize: Sensors are the senses of electronics. Without senses, we are deaf and blind. Most micro-controllers we find today, incorporate an Analog-to-Digital-Converter (ADC) peripheral. This ADC enables us to link electronic sensors, which output […]